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    Summary: On December 13, 1866, William Sullivan, William Frattiger, Christopher J. Conley, John Hamilton, and John Hudson were arrested by the Harbor Police in San Francisco, California. These boys ranged in age from 10 to 16, and identified themselves as the Hoodlum Band. The gang testified against its fence, Lazarus Moses, a German Jew, (aka Fagin). Mr. Moses was convicted and paid his $300 fine. The first reported reference to the Hoodlum Band was in the December 14, 1866 Daily Evening Bulletin. The Hoodlum Band's numerous petty thefts and Lazarus Moses' ability to sell stolen goods popularized the word hoodlum.

    Hudelum is a German dialect word which means disorderly.

    This page has four parts:
  • Lazarus Moses
  • James Riley, King of the Hoodlums
  • Industrial School
  • Maps and photographs
  • .

    Fun fact: James Riley and Lazarus Moses both described themselves as tailors.

    Oliver Twist in a San Francisco setting

    Charles Dicken's character, Fagin, has a connection to the word hoodlum. A German Jew, Lazarus Moses, received stolen goods from the Hoodlum Band in 1860s San Francisco. Lazarus Moses' nickname was Fagin.
    Another link to Oliver Twist is that the Hoodlum Gang did not want to be sentenced to the Industrial School (workhouse).

    Marysville Daily Appeal, Volume V, Number 105, 2 May 1862
    Organized gang of juvenile thieves in San Francisco

    November 7, 1864 Lazarus Moses became a citizen.
    July 23, 1866 Lazarus Moses registered to vote.

    June 30, 1865, Lincoln School opened at Fifth and Mission streets. This school was within the territory of the Hoodlum Gang.
    Daily Alta California, Volume 17, Number 5622, 28 July 1865
    Peter Wilson broke the leg of a student enrolled in Lincoln School.
    Description of Lincoln School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 18, Number 5908, 14 May 1866
    San Francisco needed more police.

    Marysville Daily Appeal, Volume XIV, Number 88, 16 October 1866
    Confederacy of juvenile thieves in San Francisco

    Harbor Police in July, 1866 to June, 1867 San Francisco Municipal Report

    December 13, 1866 Daily Evening Bulletin
    Harbor Police arrested boys.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 18, Number 7020, 14 December 1866
    "Juvenile Thieves" - Five boys with false keys arrested.
    Names of boys included in this article.
    Jack Sheppard in Wikipedia - Jack Sheppard also fenced stolen goods.

    December 14, 1866 Daily Evening Bulletin
    Hoodlum Band arrested.
    Thank you to Fred Shapiro

    December 14, 1866 Daily Evening Bulletin
    Tommy Lloyd arrested for stealing clothes from a room at the corner of Third Street and Jessie Street. The Hoodlum Gang operated between Jessie Street and Minna Street.

    December 15, 1866 Daily Evening Bulletin
    Lazarus Moses arrested.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 32, Number 4904, 15 December 1866
    Harbor Police arrested Lazarus Moses.

  • Pacific and Montgomery Streets on map


  • Daily Alta California, Volume 18, Number 7021, 15 December 1866
    Lazarus Moses arrested.
    This article has two parts - "Arrested" arrest of Lazarus Moses and "After the Receivers" five young thieves arrested.
    This article also announced the departure of Mark Twain.
    Samuel Clemens resided at 44 Minna in the 1865 Langley San Francisco Directory.
    Twain and Dickens
    Mark Twain mentions the Artful Dodger.
    Thank you to Barbara Schmidt

    December 19, 1866 Daily Evening Bulletin
    Receiving stolen goods - Lazarus Moses, charged with having received stolen goods, from the Hoodlum Band, has demanded a jury trial, which will be had tomorrow afternoon. The boys will be used as witnesses against him.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 18, Number 7025, 19 December 1866
    Lazarus Moses demanded jury trial.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 18, Number 7026, 20 December 1866
    Hoodlum testimony against Lazarus Moses

    December 20, 1866 Daily Evening Bulletin
    Verdict

    Zabriskie was a prominent pioneer family.
    1867 San Francisco City Directory

    December 27, 1866 Daily Evening Bulletin
    Lazarus Moses paid $300 fine.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 32, Number 4916, 29 December 1866
    John Miller, Captain of the Hoodlum gang, consigned to Industrial School.

    Lazarus Moses in the 1867 San Francisco Directory

    Fagin from Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist

    Daily Alta California, Volume 19, Number 6410, 3 October 1867
    Lazarus Moses found not guilty of throwing rock at Frederick Carr. Her ex-husband, Levy, threw rock.
    Daily Alta California, Volume 19, Number 6411, 4 October 1867
    Raphael Levy convicted of hitting Lazarus Moses on the head with a rock.
    Raphael Levy, junk dealer, 463 Jessie

    Daily Alta California, Volume 20, Number 6538, 8 February 1868
    Henry Hopkins,Captain of the Hoodlum Gang, arrested.
    Article reported that Lazarus Moses was heavily fined for December, 1866 conviction.
    Daily Alta California, Volume 20, Number 6539, 9 February 1868
    Henry Hopkins sent back to Industrial School.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 36, Number 5585, 19 February 1869
    Lazarus Moses arrested for receiving stolen goods.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 37, Number 5656, 13 May 1869
    Caroline Moses sued Lazarus Moses for divorce.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 22, Number 7347, 3 May 1870
    Lazarus Moses sued for slander.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 22, Number 7551, 23 November 1870
    Lazarus Moses fined $30 for assault and battery on his wife.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 22, Number 7568, 10 December 1870
    Lazarus Moses' trial for slander.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 22, Number 7568, 10 December 1870
    Serving summons on Lazarus Moses
    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 40, Number 7044, 10 December 1870
    Judgement of $500 against Lazarus Moses

    December 10, 1870 San Francisco Chronicle
    A Reputation Ruined.
    Lazarus Moses pays $500 for the luxury of calling his partner a thief.
    Charles Wehring and Lazarus Moses have been merchants on a small scale – quite a small scale. They kept an old clothes shop on Pacific Street not many months ago. They were largely patronized by a certain class of customers – that class who habitually have articles of various kinds to sell, and don't like to be asked questions. The firm of Wehring & Moses were an "eminently respectable" firm.
    They made 'mind your own business' their maxim. They were not inquisitive. If a hall-thief brought them a gold headed cane, or a servant-girl brought a silk dress or a diamond ring, which business of their's was it where he or she got it? None at all, and they knew it. So they asked no pertinent questions, but took what was offered and paid for it. In this way things ran along swimmingly until the members of this "eminently respectable" firm had a slight difficulty in dividing their profits. They agreed to disagree, and a dissolution followed. On one point in particular they held, or claimed to hold, adverse opinions, and it was this point which they prayed the Court to adjudicate.
    In court Wehring 'would not shtand to be callt a tief,' and he laid his plaint before Messrs. Quint &Hardy. They drew it up in legal form, setting forth that Moses said Wehring was a 'tief, a ploody tief,' and that he stole from Moses a half dollar to a dollar at a time until he had robbed him of $5,000. For this injury to his hithterto unspotted reputation, Wehring prayed $5,000 damages. At another time and place Wehring says Moses repeated the same assertion, and he claimed another $5,000 for that. Then afterward Moses met Wehring and said to him, 'You are a tam ploody tief,' and Wehring wanted $5,000 for that. Wehring apparently liked to have the account run on this way. Three fives make fifteen and so he sued Moses for $15,000.
    Wehring on the stand. Never was a more comical scene enacted in a Court-room than during the trial of this case in the Fourth District Court yesterday afternoon. The plaintiff took the stand, and sputtering away in the most vehement manner, related how Moses dogged him about, saying, 'You are a ploody tief! You stheal four bit efery tay from mine sthore: I have to watch you all te time until you quit. You are a tam humbugger,and I will kick you efery time I meet you. You are a tief, a ploody tief: you did steal, and there you sit and don’t say a word because you are a tief, and a tief won't speak. I spit on you. I will make you one peggar.' He testified that Lazarus had offered him $150, $300 and $3.0 to seize the case, but he would not.
    The lawyers and the jury were convulsed with laughter, and the Judge himself could not keep a straight face. The defendant was represented by George F. Sharp. The Court inquired where the defendant Moses was. His attorney did not know; but just at the moment he came bobbing into the room. If Wehring was caricature on humanity, Moses was a caricature on the caricature. A little, short dumpy man, bobbing up and down, and shrugging his shoulders, he waddled inside the bar, and the laughter was louder than ever.
    In defense the Counsel had nothing to offer. Moses did not deny having called Wehring a 'tief'. Mr. Sharp said he would rest his case by merely exhibiting his client to the jury. Moses stood up, in obedience to the command, and his comical dumpy figure set the Court to roar again, so great was the contrast between him and his sputtering opponent.
    The Jury charged. Judge Morrison charged the Jury in this manner; 'Gentlemen, you have heard this case; take it and do what is right with it. The plaintiff proves the language, and it is not denied. He is not called on to prove special damages. You are entitled to give him such a verdict as you think, under the circumstances, is right.' In a short the jury returned a verdict for $500. Moses will be careful how he calls a respectable man a 'ploody tief' again.

    According the 1869 San Francisco City Directory, Charles Schwering worked for Ernest Essmann at 714 Montgomery in a dry goods store.
    According to the 1871 Great Register, Charles Schwering was born about 1842 in Germany. He dwelt at 112 Morton (now Maiden Lane).
    According to the 1871 San Francisco City Directory, Lazarus Moses dwelt at 830 Harrison Street and owned a dry goods store.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 23, Number 7688, 10 April 1871
    Rising Star Club had club house at Second and Stevenson.
    This club was described as hoodlums.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 41, Number 7154, 18 April 1871
    Lazarus Moses, aka Fagin Keyer

    San Francisco Chronicle April 26, 1871
    Fagin in Court
    The case of Lazarus Moses was called. Moses is charged with keeping what is known as a "fence", or receiver of stolen goods. He keeps a second hand clothing hand store on Jackson Street, and has been convicted of the same offense before. The evidence against Moses in this instance is a vest which he was attempting to pawn when he was captured. The vest was identified by Mr. Platchsak as one of the lot which were stolen from his store some time since with other articles of clothing. The evidence against Moses was conclusive, and he was held to answer in the sum of $1,000.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 41, Number 7162, 27 April 1871
    $1,000 bail for Lazarus Moses

    See map at the bottom of the page to view locations of Jessie and Minna Streets and Folsom and Beale Streets.
    May 13, 1871 San Francisco Chronicle
    Young Desperadoes.
    Capture of a Nest of Juvenile Thieves.
    At one time in the history of this city the gangs of youthful thieves and vagabonds who infested certain localities vied with older criminals in the extent and boldness of their depradations. The "Forty Thieves" and "Wharf Rats" were the scourges of the docks. The original "Hoodlums", who had their quarters on Jessie and Minna streets, formed the worst gang of petty thieves San Francisco ever had to lament; and the "Mud Larks of Tar Flat" even now commit larcenies and smash windows in and around Beale and Folsom streets. These gangs have been pretty well broken up, and now the dotings of another set have been exposed. Seven young rascals composed the band. They appear to have committed numerous and systematic robberies, planted and carried through with the cunning and precocity of the genuine "Hoodlum". For about two months they had annoyed the people who reside in the vicinity of Market and Sixth street, and had a rendezvous under the M. E. Church on Tyler Street, to which they carried their plunder, afterward disposing of it at junk-shops and other places where such goods usually find their way. Officers Stopple, Bernard and Devitt were detailed to hunt up the perpetrators of the many depredations committed in that portion of the city, and finally traced out the gang, all of the members of which they arrested. A plot was formed at one time by these boys to send the church heavenwards by means of gunpowder, but they did not succeed in carrying their plan to a successful termination. The mine was laid and the fuse lighted, but the result was not what they expected, and the explosion injured some of them instead of raising the church. Yesterday morning Judge Sawyer sent six to the Industrial School. Their names are Edward Rawling, Cornelius Bigelow, Michael Kennedy, John McNulty, Joseph Clay, and Cornelius McCarthy. None of them are over thirteen years of age.

    May 27, 1871 San Francisco Chronicle
    William Stanyan, a boy aged sixteen years, was examined on a charge of housebreaking in the day time. The particulars of the felony are as follows: Stanyan lives with his mother on Pine Street, next door to the residence of Thomas Gillan, Janitor of the Denman School, and is represented by that gentleman as a very bad boy, doing nothing to help to support his mother. Some time since he missed various articles consisting of clothing, and a Colt's revolver, besides $12 in coin. Among other things he missed a shirt which, having a stain on the sleeve, he thought he could identify, and proceeded to ferret out the burglar or burglars who had taken the things. From tracks left in the sand in Mrs. Stanayan's yard and on the side of his fence, his suspicions rested on young Stanyan. He procured a search warrant and searched Mrs. Stanyan's house; found nothing there, but on searching the boy found the shirt he had missed upon him, and had him arrested. Stanyan himself appeared to treat the matter very lightly, and when called upon to give his version of the affair did so with and an assurance very much out of place in one who had committed a crime. He said that he had intended to go East in a short time with a party of other boys, and as he had no clean shirt he did not like to go until he could get one, so he was delayed until a friend kindly provided him with the one said to have been stolen from Mr. Gillan. The gift was made one night in the Alta Lodging house where Stanyan admitted he had been staying. Stanyan was asked if he had ever appeared in the Police Court before, and replied that he had been a witness in a case several years ago. It transpired that the case was that of Lazarus Moses, charged with receiving stolen goods from boys. Judge Sawyer said he thought he was a bad boy and that if he had confessed his crime at first he should have done, he would only have sent him to the Industrial School, but as the circumstances of the case showed very strongly that he had committed the felony, he should hold him to answer before the Grand Jury to the sum of $500.

    August 3, 1871 San Francisco Chronicle – On a "Spec"
    The gamins of San Francisco are an enterprising class of the community. They attend the theaters whenever a new play of the sensational style is announced – and they never pay a cent, either. As a general thing they "check" in, but they sometimes enter from the roof, or by back entrances. They are spectators as well as lovers of the histrionic art, and show their sharpness in "biz" as in pleasure. The manner in which this speculating is done – "going on a spec", as they call it – is for two, three or a dozen youngsters of embryo Hoodlum type to visit "Ragtown", "Kensington", or any of the suburbs of the city, and overturn heaps of rubbish for bottles, lead, brass or copper, which they dispose of at the junk shops for so much a pound. "Tar Flat" is a favorite "specking" ground, for this is in the vicinity of foundries, and large quantities of metal are stolen every week from the yards and sheds adjoining. Two of the "Arabs", named John Copely and William O'Connor, were arrested for speculating in copper to the amount of fifty pounds, and, upon being arraigned, were charged with felony, which was afterwards changed to petty larceny. Upon the statement of Joseph Levy, from whom the copper was stolen, the boys were ordered to appear for sentence.

    Tar Flat – Historical Essay

    Daily Alta California, Volume 23, Number 7841, 12 September 1871
    Lazarus Moses was in jail in Sacramento.

    September 13, 1871 San Francisco Chronicle
    William Stanyan is a boy who, having been charged with burglary, and afterwards indicted for housebreaking in the daytime, has occupied a cell in the County Jail for the past two months. Yesterday he was tried, and the evidence was either insufficient to convict him, or his youth aroused some feeling in the minds of the jurors, for they rendered a verdict of "not guilty", and Stanyan returns to his mother.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 23, Number 7948, 29 December 1871
    Hoodlumism

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 8297, 14 December 1872
    Mary Doogan, Queen of the Hoodlums

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 44, Number 6967, 2 August 1873
    Ambie Bowen, Queen of the Hoodlums

    Daily Alta California, Volume 26, Number 8681, 6 January 1874
    Prosecuting attorney asked for definition of hoodlum from witness.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 26, Number 8952, 5 October 1874
    "Hoodlum" versus "Tough"

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 47, Number 7284, 8 August 1874
    Interview with a hoodlum

    The city of the Golden Gate : a description of San Francisco in 1875 / written by Samuel Williams in Scribners
    This article described hoodlums.

    Illustration of hoodlums

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 1, Number 235, 17 November 1875
    San Francisco's most pressing question

    April 15, 1876
    Hoodlumism mentioned in Report of testimony in front of California Senate Committee on Chinese Immigration.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 3, Number 160, 1 September 1877
    Origin of the word, "hoodlum". This article incorrectly indicated June, 1868 as the first mention of "hoodlum".

    March 15, 1879
    "A Matter of Taste" cartoon by Thomas Nast. Hoodlum Stew was written in the background.

    California slang from a book published in 1880.

    October 24, 1885 Sacramento Daily Union
    San Francisco, October 23d – Shortly before 7 o'clock this evening, as Mrs. L. Moses, a native of Germany, 56 years of age, living at 830 Harrison Street, was in the act of boarding a street car, she was knocked down by a passing milk wagon and instantly killed.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 39, Number 13007, 24 October 1885
    Caroline Moses run over and killed.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 39, Number 13022, 8 November 1885
    Frank Baumann charged with manslaughter.

    January 14, 1886 San Francisco Chronicle
    The impaneling of a jury to try Frank Baumann on a charge of manslaughter was begun yesterday in Judge Murray's Court. Baumann is the reckless driver who ran over and killed Mrs. Caroline Moses on the corner of Fourth and Harrison streets on the 23rd of last October. Baumann has been confined to the County Jail since then, being unable to secure bonds.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 40, Number 13094, 19 January 1886
    Frank Baumann acquitted.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 40, Number 13330, 24 February 1886
    The term gangster is coined in Cincinnati, Ohio.
    However, the Oxford English Dictionary writes: "1884 Cincinnati Commercial Gaz. 13 Oct. 4/5 They have a candidate for the Presidency, and his name is Grover Cleveland, the creature of a combination of gangsters and cranks."
    The Indiana State sentinel. (Indianapolis [Ind.]), November 26, 1884, Page 4, Image 4 Ohio Gang had influence in Hayes Presidency, 1877-1881.
    The News-Herald. (Hillsboro, Highland Co., Ohio), October 16, 1890, Page 7, Image 7 Cincinnati Gangster
    Under the heading, "Need of National Association, the President of a coal dealer association described himself as a gangster - a believer in gang politics - 1918.
    August 18, 1930 Time Magazine - New Ohio Gang
    Hoodlum originated in San Francisco to describe juvenile criminals. Hoodlum can still be used to describe young criminals. The term gangster no longer includes politicians. Gangster became a synonym for hoodlum.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 42, Number 14055, 22 February 1888
    Mamie Jones, hoodlum heiress

    Daily Alta California, Volume 42, Number 14056, 23 February 1888
    Mamie Jones and Mary Murphy

    Daily Alta California, Volume 81, Number 9, 9 July 1889
    Lazarus Moses applied for letters of administration of the estate of Caroline Moses.

    San Francisco Call, Volume 79, Number 57, 26 January 1896
    Lazarus Moses was born in Germany.
    Find A Grave Lazarus Moses
    Find A Grave Caroline Moses

    1855 New York State Census, New York City
    Name Age Gender Relationship Occupation Birthplace Years in city
    Lazarus Moses 28 male none tailor Prussia 5
    Caroline Moses 32 female wife none Prussia 6
    Morris Moses 4 male (twin) none none New York 4
    Rachael Moses 4 female (twin) none none New York 4
    Rebeccah Moses 6 months female none none New York 6 months


    1860 Federal Census, San Francisco, California
    Name Age Gender Occupation Birthplace
    L Moses 33 male tailor Prussia
    Lena Moses 30 female none Prussia
    Morris 8 male none New York
    Rachael 7 female none New York
    Sarah 6 female none New York
    Paul 3 male none California
    Rebecca 1 female none California


    1880 Federal Census, San Francisco, California
    Name Age Gender Relationship Occupation Birthplace
    Lazarus Moses 61 male none tailor Prussia
    Caroline Moses 64 female wife keeping house Prussia
    Paul Moses 19 male son works in shoe factory California
    Rebecca 17 female daughter works in cigar factory California


    The discrepancy between "Lena Moses" listed in the 1860 census and "Caroline Moses" can be explained as an error made by the census taker.
    Original census data

    Lazarus Moses mortuary record
    Death by hypoxic anemia - hypoxia resulting from a decreased concentration of functional hemoglobin or a reduced number of erythrocytes; it is caused by hemorrhage or anemia of various types, or by poisoning with carbon monoxide, nitrites, or chlorates.

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    Before there was James "Butt" Riley, William "Billy Goat" McGrath was a well-known juvenile delinquent. Read more about "Billy Goat".

    James Riley was NOT a member of the original Hoodlum Gang. However, he was recognized in his lifetime as the most fearsome hoodlum of the 1860s and 1870s in San Francisco, California.

    James "Butt" Riley, King of the Hoodlums

    James "Butt" Riley

    September 28, 1871 San Francisco Chronicle
    James Riley, the man who was shot by John Jordan last Monday night, is still living, but it is not expected that he will recover. He has been a rough character known by the police as the "King of the Hoodlums", and is a sailor by occupation. When confronted with Jordan on Tuesday afternoon and asked to point out the man who shot him, he very reluctantly indicated Jordan, at the same time saying with an oath, "I aint going to die – there's a chance for me yet; I know lots of men who lived with bullets in their belly." He did not bear any ill-feeling toward Jordan, addressing him as "Johnny", smiling as he said it.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 7966, 17 January 1872
    King of the Hoodlums

    Judge Louderback remembered for his imprisonment of James Riley.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 43, Number 7448, 28 March 1872
    Sentence of 16 years for robbery and burglary

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 1, Number 247, 1 December 1875
    Riley's friend sought a pardon.

    1876 fire at San Quentin began on February 28, 1876.

    The March 31, 1876 San Francisco Chronicle reported that the State Prison Committee recommended the commutation of Riley's sentence. Riley was described as, "The notorious 'King of the Hoodlums,' who excited more terror during his extended reign than many a real king. He is decidedly the worst man ever sent from this city."

    Riley petitioned the Governor of California for a shorter sentence. Riley was released from San Quentin on November 5, 1880. The full sentence would have ended in 1888. Riley was commended for his help in fighting the fire.

    Part one
    Part two
    Part three
    Part four

    Records from San Quentin Prison courtesy of the California State Archives

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    The San Francisco Industrial School and the Origins of Juvenile Justice in California: A Glance at the Great Reformation by Daniel MacAllair

    After the Doors Were Locked: A History of Youth Corrections in California and the Origins of Twenty-First Century Reform

    Daily Alta California, Volume 2, Number 81, 28 February 1851
    Public schools and instruction - John C. Pelton

    Daily Alta California, Volume 2, Number 96, 15 March 1851
    George Dyer
    This article is interesting because George Dyer stole clothes and sold them to a clothing store on the wharf.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 2, Number 224, 23 July 1851
    George Dyer's criminal history was a reason to build a correctional facility.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 2, Number 313, 21 October 1851
    George Hyne sentenced to County Jail.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 4, Number 285, 3 November 1853
    Mr. Brower introduced resolution to build House of Refuge for juvenile offenders.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 4, Number 286, 4 November 1853
    Reasons to build House of Refuge

    Daily Alta California, Volume 4, Number 298, 16 November 1853
    Mayor's Message included support for House of Refuge.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 5, Number 73, 15 March 1854
    Eight-year-old boy trained by older thieves.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 14, Number 2174, 16 March 1858
    Act introduced to establish Industrial School.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 10, Number 187, 10 July 1858
    Judge indicated that juvenile offenders may be transferred from jail to Industrial School.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 10, Number 202, 25 July 1858
    Homeless children huddled together.

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 17, Number 2541, 19 May 1859
    Inauguration of Industrial School

    August, 1859 Hutchings' California Magazine

    Daily Alta California, Volume 11, Number 361, 30 December 1859
    Visit to the Industrial School

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 18, Number 2784, 28 February 1860
    Commission report on establishment of a reform school

    Daily Alta California, Volume 12, Number 138, 18 May 1860
    First year anniversary of the Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 12, Number 138, 18 May 1860
    Industrial School criticized for inmate escapes.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 12, Number 177, 26 June 1860
    Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 15, Number 5050, 27 December 1863
    Christmas at the Industrial School

    March 3, 1865 An Act Providing for the Confinement of Juvenile Offenders

    Daily Alta California, Volume 20, Number 6546, 16 February 1868
    Industrial School investigation
    Testimony in Appendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 36, Number 5525, 10 December 1868
    Annual report of Industrial School

    Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 38, Number 5830, 3 December 1869
    John C. Pelton appointed Superintendent of the Industrial School.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 21, Number 7197, 4 December 1869
    Installation of John C. Pelton as Superintendent of the Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 22, Number 7506, 9 October 1870
    Industrial School – penal or correctional?

    Daily Alta California, Volume 22, Number 7511, 14 October 1870
    Dental care at the Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 22, Number 7558, 30 November 1870
    Fever at the Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 23, Number 7606, 18 January 1871
    Cost per pupil at the Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 23, Number 7716, 8 May 1871
    Informant stabbed at Industrial School.

    Pacific Appeal, Volume VII, Number 42, 27 May 1871
    Condition of Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 23, Number 7774, 6 July 1871
    Large number of boys escaped from the Industrial School.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 23, Number 7866, 7 October 1871
    Industrial School investigation

    Daily Alta California, Volume 28, Number 7903, 13 November 1871
    Cost of escapes from Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 7958, 9 January 1872
    Three girls taken from prostitutes and hoodlums and placed in Industrial School.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 7961, 12 January 1872
    Matters of Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 7992, 12 February 1872
    History of Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 8039, 30 March 1872
    Death and sickness at Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 8063, 23 April 1872
    Superintendent John C. Pelton resigned from Industrial School.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 8176, 15 August 1872
    Grand Jury Committee toured Industrial School and Magdalen Asylum.

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 8179, 18 August 1872
    Young burglars

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 8195, 3 September 1872
    Annual report of Industrial School

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 8297, 14 December 1872
    Industrial School investigation

    Daily Alta California, Volume 24, Number 8303, 20 December 1872
    End of Industrial School investigation

    Daily Alta California, Volume 36, Number 12374, 3 March 1884
    Riot at Magdalen Asylum

    Daily Alta California, Volume 82, Number 156, 5 June 1890
    Industrial School was determined to be a failure by the Grand Jury.
    Magdalen Asylum was a success.
    Magdalene Grotto is at the site of the Magdalen Asylum.

    Fred C. Nelles Youth Correctional Facility opened in July, 1891.

    San Francisco Call, Volume 70, Number 177, 24 November 1891
    Industrial School Committee recommended closure of the Industrial School.
    Final report of the Superintendent of the Industrial School

    Los Angeles Herald, Volume 36, Number 72, 29 June 1891
    Reform School

    Industrial School Reports in San Francisco Municipal Report


    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1859-60, Ending June 30, 1860
    Groups of 4 to 5 boys who huddled together now greeted visitors.

    June 30, 1861 report is not available.

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1861-62, Ending June 30, 1862

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1862-63, Ending June 30, 1863

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1863-64, Ending June 30, 1864

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1864-65, Ending June 30, 1865

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1865-66, Ending June 30, 1866

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1866-67, Ending June 30, 1867

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1867-68, Ending June 30, 1868

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1868-69, Ending June 30, 1869

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1869-70, Ending June 30, 1870

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1870-71, Ending June 30, 1871

    San Francisco municipal reports Fiscal Year 1871-72, Ending June 30, 1872

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    Map of 1872 San Francisco

    This map has three important areas.
    1. The corner of Pacific and Montgomery street was the location of Lazarus Moses's second-hand clothes shop.
    2. The Hoodlum Gang was quartered in the area of Jessie and Minna streets. Jessie Street and Minna Street extended from First Street to Tenth Street in the 1868 San Francisco City Directory. The 1872 shows changes made after 1868.
    3. From July 5, 1911 San Francisco Call about the Tar Flats, "The name was applied to a section of low flat ground east of First Street between Mission and First,in part covered by shallow water. It received that name from the fact that the refuse tar from the gas works at First and Natoma streets was allowed to flow on that ground. Originally only that territory mentioned was known as Tar flat, but in later years some newspaper writers applied the name to all that portion of the city east of Third street between Market and Brannan. Fourth and Welsh streets were not in Tar Flat".
    Tar Flat – Historical Essay

    Compare the 1872 map to the current Yerba Buena neighborhood.

    Map of current San Francisco neighborhoods

    2nd Street from Market, looking south, 1866, Rincon Hill rises at end.
    Wand & Co was located at 32 Second Street, between Market and Mission. This photograph shows Second Street in the direction of Jessie Street and Minna Street. This area was within the Hoodlum Gang's quarters.

    Second Street facing north at the intersection at Folsom Street.[186-]
    San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library
    This photograph shows Second Street facing Market Street. This photograph is the opposite view of the Hoodlum Gang's quarters from the photograph above.

    July 4, 1865 Second Street facing Market Street.
    San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library

    Second Street at Folsom Street 1866
    San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library

    Third Street and Market Street 1865
    San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library

    1863 photo - St. Lawrence Hotel was located at 617 Market Street.
    San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library
    This hotel was on Market Street near Second Street.
    Daily Alta California, Volume 16, Number 5332, 8 October 1864
    12-year-old female attempted arson at St. Lawrence Hotel.

    Old Pioneer Hall was located at 808 Montgomery Street.
    California Pioneer Society
    Lazarus Moses' second-hand shop was located at 824 Montgomery Street.

    Second Street before and after the Second Street Cut
    According to the 1869 San Francisco Directory Lazarus Moses dwelt at 828 Harrison Street. The Second Street Cut changed the character of Harrison Street as the affluent residents moved to Nob Hill and elsewhere.

    1867 View of San Francisco waterfront from Montgomery Street between Vallejo and Broadway
    San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library


    detail of 1881 map showing the Industrial School at the intersection of the San Jose Road and Ocean House Road


    1892 map
    The Industrial School was about 5 miles from Jessie Street and Minna Street .
    The Industrial School closed in 1891, and the boys were transferred to the new Reform School in Whittier, California. Whittier is 400 miles from San Francisco.


    from 1866 San Francisco Municipal Report


    Courtesy of the Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley
    Hoodlum contributions list : ms., [185-].
    This document is probably from the 1877 Committee of Public Safety.
    March, 2 discovery of hoodlum society organization in 1877 San Francisco City Directory

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