Frederick Bee History Project

Unicode "#20613;#21015;#31192;" of Frederick Bee

California Assemblymember Marc Levine authored a resolution to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the death of Frederick A. Bee.

New York Assemblymember Ken Blankenbush authored a proclamation to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the death of Frederick A. Bee.

Frederick Alonzo Bee was early opponent of Anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States. He was a California Gold Rush pioneer, miner, merchant, manager of the Pony Express, builder of the telegraph over the Sierras, developer of Sausalito, California, lobbyist for the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, official at the Chinese Consulate, and vineyardist near Martinez, California. Bee Street in Sausalito was named after him. Bee was appointed as Consul by the Chinese government after he effectively represented the interests of the Chinese community in front of a Congressional committee and settled disputes in Chinatown. Bee acted in an official capacity to represent the interests of Chinese immigrants, and appeared in federal court cases; his efforts to preserve harmony were recognized by the Emperor of China.
Encyclopedia Britannica

Chronology of Frederick Bee's life

January 22, 2018 Mountain Democrat article about Frederick Bee

Should mountains honoring Jeff Davis be renamed?
or rename to Fred Bee Peak?

East Bay Times April 22, 2016
results of an online poll

Waterville Times May 3, 2017 - Frederick Bee Day in Clinton, NY
See image at bottom of page.

<BGSOUND SRC="wrapribbon.mp3"> Index to webpage

I posted letters from Frederick Bee to John Bidwell.
Courtesy of ohn Bidwell Papers, 1848-1900. MSS 002, Meriam Library, California State University, Chico

May 4, 2014 Martinez News Gazette
Reprint of April 29, 1882 article about an attack on Chinese residents.
More articles from the Contra Costa Gazette about the attack

October, 2015 Sierra Heritage magazine featured Frederick Bee in a 4-page article written by Linda J. Bottjer.

October, 2016 Clinton Historical Society Newsletter, page 2

Contact me

Courtesy of Lewis & Clark College Aubrey Watzek Library Archives & Special Collections.

Guide to the Ralston Family Collection
Nickerson-Ralston-Denny family tree
In 1877, Owen Nickerson Denny was appointed U.S. consul in Tinjin, China.

Frederick Bee
Courtesy of the California History Room, California State Library, Sacramento, California.

Medallion presented to Frederick Bee
Courtesy of the Bee family

From David Humphrey, "Apparently these medallions were given by the government of China (not necessarily gifted by the Emperor or Empress Dowager personally) as acknowledgment of service to the welfare of China in some manner. There were other medallions made of gold reserved for the highest honors bestowed upon the 'foreign devils' and all of these honorary medallions were given begrudgingly by China as she considered all foreigners as enemies even if worthy of some recognition. The writing on the front of the medallion is in the Manchu language and was used for official gifts.
I consulted with a former director of a museum of Asian Arts and he told me the above information and also that he had seen several of such medallions over the years."

Sketch of flag used by Chinese legations abroad
from "Notes from the Chinese Legation in the United States to the Department of State 1868 to 1906"

Huang Zunxian's poem written about Frederick Bee from "Renjinglu shicao jianzhu"
Original poem and note

My reasons for Frederick Bee's attitudes toward Chinese workers

Most of Mr. Bee's biographical information is in the following decade-by-decade categories.
1820 to 1849
1850 to 1859
1860 to 1869
1870 to 1879
1880 to 1889
1890 to 1899

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Read about the origin of hoodlums.

Chinese as Medical Scapegoats 1870 - 1905
Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 2, Number 59, 29 April 1876
Chinese Women
California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences, Volume 45, Number 13, 10 August 1876
Great Scourge
Daily Alta California, Volume 28, Number 9666, 23 September 1876
Fumigationn of Chinatown

Edward Bosqui Memoirs (1904)
Mr.Bosqui was the first President of the San Francisco Chinese Protection Society and an original incorporator of Sausalito.
Fate of the Chinese Protection Society

"The hand-book of Mount Desert, coast of Maine, with all the routes thither" by Albert W. Bee, Jr.

Frederick Bee and Samoa

The California Digital Newspaper Collection is a project of the Center for Bibliographical Studies and Research (CBSR) at the University of California, Riverside.

NOTE: Simon Schama wrote about Fred Bee in his book, "The American Future: A History".

Was Frederick Bee a Provost Marshal during the Civil War? I say NO.
Review my evidence.

Collection of Chinese immigration pamphlets

You can SEARCH the Foreign Relations of the United States.
Search for "F A Bee", "Consul Bee", "Colonel Bee"," Frederick A. Bee", etc.

1878 - 1879 Constitutional Convention Working Papers - search the records
United States historical newspapers online

Chapter 54 from "Roughing It"

Confronting Capitalism in 1870s California:The Workingmen's Party, Antislavery, Anti-Chinese Racism and the Meaning of Free Labor
Rudi Batzell, Senior Thesis, History,May, 2009

Overview of mails, stages and express

Early methods of transportation

Hubert Howe Bancroft's book, "Chronicles of the builders of the Commonwealth"
History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, 1540-1888 (1890) by Hubert Howe Bancroft from pages 228-230

Reminiscences of telegraphers in 1919

Overview of railroads from 1871 San Francisco City Directory

San Francisco Municipal Reports 1859 to 1892

Good history of Northwestern Pacific Railroad

San Francisco Call, Volume 83, Number 54, 23 January 1898
History of San Francisco

San Francisco Commercial History 1850 - especially page 540

"Old Wires and New Waves" - a history of the telegraph

Website that has California election results

Read about Genoa, Nevada

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Family Tree
See Bee Family Tree at for more details.
Genealogy of John Bee, father of Frederick Bee

Bee Family and the First Unitarian Church

Frank M. Bee biograpny was wrong.
Frank Bee was a farmer in Contra Costa County.

When was Willie Howard Bee born? When did Willie Howard Bee die? Why didn't the tombstone in San Francisco match the tombstone in Placerville?
and Willie Bee's gravesite

John Bee's property in Clinton, NY

From the Oneida County Historical Society, "John Bee owned land in the Town of Paris in 1814. He was also in the 1825 census with 6 males and 3 females, one male of voting age. In the Old Burying grounds, Kirkland Av., Clinton, NY Elizabeth Bee, age 22, died March 10, 1832; John Bee, age 57, died July 1, 1833, and John Bee Jr. age 19, died March 1, 1836."
Old Burying Ground, Clinton, NY
John Bee, father
Per Alice Corcoran Bee, John Bee moved to Clinton, NY in 1802.
Per Clinton, NY Historical Society, John Bee was a tailor. He was a leader in the local Masonic Order. His property ended just short of the present day 7 College St. which is and has been the location of Alteri's Restaurant for 60 years.
John Bee,son
Elizabeth Bee

Albert W. Bee's wife and son,Everett Newton Bee, during the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
Sophronia L. Bee wrote letters dated April 19 1906.
href="">Earthquake Exodus
View earthquake shack at San Francisco Zoo.
James Palmer, Jr. married Frances Haver, Frederick Bee's niece, in 1869.
Read about the Palmer Family.

Albert Wilson Bee, Jr., son of Frederick A. Bee's brother, was also named Wilson Clapp Bee.
Search for Albert Wilson Bee on Southwest Harbor Public Library, Maine website

Sophronia Clapp and Albert Wilson Bee short biographies written by Albert Wilson Bee, III.
Courtesy of Alice (Bee) Corcoran
Per the Clinton, NY Historical Society, S. Louise Clapp was enrolled at Clinton Liberal Institute, Female Department in 1850 and 1851.
The Institute was founded in 1831 by the Universalist Church; it moved to Fort Plain, N.Y. in 1879 and operated there until it was destroyed by fire in 1900.
Clinton in 1852

Pictures of Anna Bee's house in Saratoga, California
The house was built in 1902. Original property records are also attached.
Information about the house
Notice in September 11, 1901 Bar Harbor Record
Eden, Maine is now known as Bar Harbor, Maine.

Albert W. Bee, Jr. biography
Courtesy of the Southwest Harbor Public Library

From: Nora Murphy, Archivist for Reference, Instruction and Outreach, Institute Archives and Special Collections, 14N-118, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, regarding Albert W. Bee, Jr.
"According to sources in the archives, Mr. Bee's address on entrance was Santa Barbara, California. It appears that Mr. Bee attended MIT from 1869-1873. He took courses in Civil Engineering (course 1) from 1872-1873. It is not clear if he graduated from MIT but he was considered part of class 1874.
In the Student Directories for the years 1869 -1873, Mr. Bee's home address is given as San Francisco, California. From 1869-1871, his term address is listed as Dorchester. During the 1871/72 academic year, his term address was 28 Milford Street, Boston. The following year, he moved to 26 Milford Street.
His name also appeared in two Alumni Directories. The directory for the year 1909 listed Mr. Bee as having attended during the years 1870-71-72-73. The 1912 directory gives his attendance as 1869-73, and lists him as deceased.
Read about Albert Wilson Bee, Jr.'s in-laws
Melinda P. Blake was born on 20 Sep 1825.Melinda married Thomas Payson on 13 May 1852. Thomas was born on 13 Mar 1822. He died on 28 Jul 1877.
They had the following children:
Horace Blake Payson was born on 19 Oct 1856. He died on 6 Jan 1891.
Charles Thomas Payson was born on 23 May 1860. He died on 28 Apr 1864
Nellie Fay Payson was born on 1 Apr 1866. She died on 12 May 1875.
Anna Holden Payson was born on 22 Sep 1854. Anna Holden Payson married Albert W. Bee, Jr. on May 13, 1881. Anna Holden Payson Bee died on December 12, 1939 in Santa Barbara, CA.

Richard Bee's letters written during his trip from New York to San Francisco with Everett Newton Bee in the summer of 1932.
Compare these letters to the diary of Albert Bee, father of Everett Newton Bee - Gold Rush vs. Depression, old man vs. young man, father vs. son, sailing ship vs. automobile.
Anna Holden Payson, grandmother to Richard Bee, made at least five cross-country trips by automobiles, the last one in 1936 at the age of 82.
Read about Richard Bee.
Everett Bee and his love of dancing in The Wasp July 11, 1914, page 16

Inscriptions at Lone Mountain Cemetery aka Laurel Hill
More inscriptions
Nothing left of cemetery

Wilson Family history

Search for Sophonia Clapp (page 257) and Fayette Clapp (page 71) in The Clapp memorial: record of the Clapp family in America by Ebeneezer Clapp.
Fayette Clapp married Louise Amelia Knapp Smith. Louise Clapp (later Clappe) wrote under the name of "Dame Shirley". The marriage of Fayette Clapp to Louise Smith is NOT mentioned in the records of Ebeneezer Clapp.
Read Dame Shirley's letters.
The wives of Frederick and Albert Bee did not leave records; Dame Shirley's experiences may be a good substitute.
Some interesting facts about Louise Clappe, Osmyn Baker, and Fayette Clapp
John Swett was a friend of Louise Clappe and an acquaintance of the Bee Family.

The Bee Family's influence continued after the death of Frederick A. Bee
Everett Newton Bee
Robert Park

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List of San Francisco consuls with dates of consulship

A Statement for Non-Exclusion published in 1905
This book is a good introduction to the history of Chinese exclusion in America.

Frederick A. Bee was a witness at habeas corpus trials, not the defense attorney.
Index to Habeas Corpus Cases of the US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco
March 22, 1882 - June 16, 1887
Cases 2034 - 3200
Cases 3202 - 3946
Cases 3950 - 4678
June 17, 1887 - August 6, 1888
Cases 4679 - 5268
Cases 5269 - 5888
Cases 5889 - 6508
Cases 6509 - 7129
Cases 7130 - 7812
August 6, 1888 - March, 1892
Cases 7813 - 8398
Cases 8399 - 9019
Cases 9020 - 9639
Cases 9640 - 10321
I copied these records at the National Archives in San Bruno, California.
Thank you to Marisa Louie

Detainees under the age of 18

Transcription of the Index to Habeas Corpus Cases for the US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco, March 22, 1882 to June 1, 1892.
Index sorted by attorney.
Spreadsheet of the Habeas Corpus cases of the US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco that lists the name of the Detained and the name of the Detained's father.
For the period from October, 1889 to June, 1892.

Charts of the three attorneys who handled most of the cases
Consul Bee generally recommended Riordan to Chinese passengers.
Year-by-year breakdown of immigration cases

List of District Court cases appealed to Circuit Court

Examples of appeals to Circuit Court

Spreadsheet of female detainees and records of detainees whose cases were adjudicated at the US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco from 1882 to 1892.

Loui Mong, interpreter
Loui Mong was suspected of acting on behalf of sex slave traders.

Chinese Exclusion Act Case Files Blog
The focus of this blog is the files at the National Archives (Seattle) from Record Group 85 pertaining to Seattle, Port Townsend, Washington and Portland, Oregon.

Examples of US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco detainees allegedly born in San Jose, California
Thank you to Marisa Louie and Bill Greene of the San Bruno National Archives

Examples of US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco detainees allegedly born in Los Angeles, California

Examples of US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco detainees allegedly born in Marysville, California

Examples of US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco detainees allegedly born in New York, New York

Examples of US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco detainees allegedly born in Red Bluff, California

Examples of US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco detainees allegedly born in Portland, Oregon

Examples of US District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco detainees allegedly born in Alameda, California

Examples of Habeas Corpus file numbers and corresponding immigration index cards from Publication A3381 - Register of Federal Court Cases Related to Chinese Americans and Chinese Immigrants Arriving at or Departing From San Francisco, California, ca. 1883-ca. 1916, and Head Tax Cards of Alien Seamen Examined at San Francisco, California, 1921-1924".I have also included examples of Habeas Corpus file numbers and immigration index cards that do NOT match. This register is most useful to researchers who have located a court case file and want to know if an individual had a corresponding INS case file.
These examples also include California, Passenger and Crew Lists, 1882-1957 from

You can search for immigration index cards in U.S., Chinese Immigration Case Files, 1883-1924 - National Archives and Records Administration; Washington D.C.; Register of Federal Court Cases Related to Chinese Americans and Chinese Immigrants Arriving at or Departing from San Francisco, California, ca. 1883-ca. 1916; National Archives Microfilm Publication: A3381; Roll: 1; Record Group Title: Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service; Record Group Number: 85.

THE HABEAS CORPUS FILE IS RELATED TO THE FRONT OF THE IMMIGRATION INDEX CARD BUT NOT BACK OF THE IMMIGRATION INDEX FILE because the index cards were written on both sides. According to Publication A3381, "Both the front and reverse side of the card were filmed side-by-side in a double column. The card image to the right is the front and contains all relevant information (described below). The card image to the left is the reverse side, which is either blank or contains unrelated or irrelevant information. The INS apparently re-used old cards in creating this register so unrelated information occasionally appears on the card backs. A “register” is typically a chronological and/or numerical listing or index."

Habeas Corpus index file 3589 and Habeas Corpus index file 9014 with corresponding Habeas Corpus file and immigration index card (front of card) and unrelated immigration file (back of card)

This Habeas Corpus file included testimony from interpreters. It is interesting because it described procedures used by Custom officials.

Jung Ah Lung and Jung Ah Hon have letters from Charles Bone, Wesleyan Minister in Canton, and Charles Seymour, Charles Seymour, Amerian Consul in Canton.

Two Consular Passports and one Consular Certificate
and Jack Yuen's Consular Passport

Daily Alta California, Volume 42, Number 14077, 16 March 1888
Name on passenger list different from name on writ

Search case files for early immigrants to San Francisco and Hawaii

Search the Chinese Passenger Manifest Index from the Hawaii State Archives
Thank you to Gina S. Vergara-Bautista, MLIS

Bibliography of the Chinese question in the United States (1909)

Historical Documents of the Late Qing Period (original and translation)
Rock Springs and San Francisco in volume 3 of
Qing ji wai jiao shi liao / Wang Yanwei, Wang Liang bian.
Taibei xian Yonghe Shi: Wen hai chu ban she, [1985?]

Violence against Chinese

Diplomacy of Nationalism
by Yucheng Qin

Historical Abstract of San Francisco, volume 1, published in 1897 (volumes 2 and 3 were destroyed)
See section "Chinese".
Exclusion of Chinese Laborers by State Department

Chinese Immigration was written by Mary Roberts Coolidge and published in 1909.

International Relations with China,volume 1
Volume 2

Immigration Legislation
This book starts with The Know Nothings and goes up to Chinese immigration legislation.

The Chinese in California 1850 - 1925

The anti-Chinese movement in California, by Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer

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Mark Hopkins traveled on the PACIFIC from New York to California in January, 1849. Mark Hopkins opened a store in Placerville, California but it did not succeed and he relocated to Sacramento where he opened a wholesale grocery in 1850 with his friend, Edward H. Miller. The Hopkins house burned to the ground in a fire caused by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The Mark Hopkins Hotel (currently InterContinental Mark Hopkins San Francisco) was built in its place in 1926.Everett Newton Bee lived in the Mark Hopkins Hotel.

On July 23, 1849, Cornelius Cole saw what would become Placerville after an overland journey that started from Lodi, New York on February 12, 1849.
mentioned Chinese Junk exhibited in New York City in 1845

Incidents on land and water, or, Four years on the Pacific coast: being a narrative of the burning of the ships Nonantum, Humayoon and Fanchon : together with many startling and interesting adventures on sea and land (1861)
by Mrs. D. B. Bates

George Williams' diary of his 1849 trip to San Francisco

Elizabeth Ellen sailed from New York on February 16, 1849 with F A Bee.
228 days later, Frederick Bee arrived in San Francisco on September 25, 1849.
Frederick Bee arrived in New York City on September 23, 1850 on the Ohio.
Catherine Maxwell and Frederick Bee were married in Ballston Spa, New York on Thursday, October 17, 1850.
The marriage announcement in the Ballston Spa Journal, Oct 22, 1850 (vol IV, no 27) indicated, "In this village, on the 17th inst. by David Maxwell, Esq. Mr. Frederick A. Bee to Miss Catharine Maxwell, both of this village."
Frank M. Bee was born on August 11, 1851.
Frederick Bee and family returned to San Francisco on April 30, 1852 on the Winfield Scott.

South Carolina sailed from New York on January 24, 1849 with A W Bee.
Read Albert Bee's diary.
I have permission from the Bee family to post this diary.
Albert W. Bee arrived in San Franisco on June 30, 1849.
Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 3, Number 372
Albert Bee left for Eastern States on May 31, 1852
Sophronia Louise Clapp's father died on December 8, 1852.
Albert Bee married Sophronia Louise Clapp on December 21, 1852.
Daily Alta California, Volume 4, Number 36
Albert Bee and wife returned to San Francisco on February 6, 1853 on the Oregon.
Cape Horn Route to California

Richard Bee's letters written during his trip from New York to San Francisco with Everett Newton Bee in the summer of 1932.
Compare these letters to the diary of Albert Bee, father of Everett Newton Bee - Gold Rush vs. Depression, old man vs. young man, father vs. son, sailing ship vs. automobile.
Read about Richard Bee.
Everett Bee and his love of dancing in The Wasp July 11, 1914, page 16
Photos of 1930s Rapid City, South Dakota courtesy of Patrick Roseland
Anna Holden Payson made at least five cross-country trips after her husbsnd's death,the last one in 1936 at the age of 82.
100,000 unemployed men caused a Gold Rush during the Depression.
from Placer Mining for Gold in California, Bulletin 135, Division of Mines, Department of Natural Resources, State of California,1946.
The automobile gold rushes and Depression era mining

Shultz, Charles R., Forty-niners Round the Horn: Bibliography
Good source for Forty-Niner journals

David S. Terry brought slaves to California when he returned to Stockton with his wife. He was married on November 26, 1852. I included this information about the future Justice Terry so the reader can compare and contrast the actions of Northerners and Southerners.
David S. Terry biography
Page 1 of slave manifest dated January 21, 1853
Page 2 of slave manifest
Remaking Slavery in a Free State: Masters and Slaves in Gold Rush California, Stacey L. Smith

These newspaper articles were letters written by a pioneer with the non de plume of "Hombre". These letters described Gold Rush life during the period of May to December, 1850. Martinez, Chinese immigrants, and Placerville were mentioned.

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November 9, 1878 - Colonel Bee's Hobby Horse
March 15, 1879 - The Golden Calf Retained
August 1879 to July 1880 - How the Chinaman Goes It in San Francisco
January 1881 to June 1881 - The New Treaty and the New Politicians
February 12, 1881 San Francisco Newsletter page 15
January 1882 to June 1882 - Our New Cabinet in Washington
July 1882 – December 1882 - The Chinese want to go
July 1882 to December 1882 - Royal Recollections of San Francisco
August 15, 1885 - Restriction Act Knocked Out
1886 Wasp cartoon- Diplomacy
August 10, 1889 - Easy Work. The way to repeal an act of Congress
September 28, 1889 - A Dangerous Machine to Fool With
July 1889 to December 1889 - The Joker makes his appearance once more

This website has a selection of cartoons about Chinese residents by Thomas Nast.

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Map of Sausalito Land and Ferry Company 1868
Courtesy of Anne T. Kent California Room of the Marin County Library

Bee Street, Sausalito, California, USA

Marin Historical Society - Frederick Bee article

Overview of early Placerville history that mentions A. W. Bee and F. A. Bee

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 01, Number 30, 27 March 1875
Early history of Placerville that mentions A.W. Bee and F.A. Bee

Search for Frederick and Albert Bee's property records.
Table of Bee family property records
Thank you to Doug Noble of Placerville

Placerville Herald
I scanned some articles from the Placerville Herald. Sometimes an article is in two or three sections and the text overlaps.

Bee-Bennett House

Placerville and Humboldt Telegraph Company Articles of Incorporation

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Contra Costa Promotion and Panama-Pacific Exposition Number
Courtesy of the Pleasant Hill, CA Library
School picture from the 1890s of Kate Tompkins
Courtesy of the Contra Costa County Historical Society
Kate Tompkins was the daughter of Frederick Bee Tompkins. Frederick Bee Tompkins was the son of Alice Tompkins. Alice (Maxwell) Tompkins was Catherine (Maxwell) Bee's sister.
Tompkins Genealogy

Tax assessment maps and records of Frederick Bee's property in Contra Costa County, California
Courtesy of the Contra Costa County Historical Society

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There are three parts: Civil, Unitarian, Presbyterian. I cannot find evidence of Frederick Bee's religious views.
Civil section has the example of Sarah Burke. Sarah was a white girl who wanted to marry a Chinese man.
Unitarian section has examples of Mr. Bee and his sister-in-law's involvement with the Unitarian Church.
Presbyterian section has two examples of how Mr. Bee worked with the Presbyterian Occidental Board Mission Home. This facility was run by Maggie Culbertson at 933 Sacramento Street.

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Unicode "#20613;#21015;#31192;" of Frederick Bee

Image courtesy of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
Information about portrait